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JAGUAR INTRODUCES ALL-NEW 2004 XJ RANGE FOR 2004
This Press release has to be one of the longest Jaguar has ever put out! Here it is in its entirety. Note that this is a USA originated document and that some details may not apply to other markets such as the UK.
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THE NEW XJ AT A GLANCE
2004 Technical Specifications
"Using aluminum throughout, we have created a car that takes technology – and the application of technology – to new heights. The new XJ is without a doubt the most advanced Jaguar ever."
Mike Beasley, Managing Director, Jaguar Cars
The XJ sedan is the bedrock on which the Jaguar of today is based. Seven generations of XJ – from the very first XJ6 unveiled by Sir William Lyons in the 1968, to the all-new model that made its public debut in September 2002 – have taken the mantle of the definitive Jaguar sedan. Total production since the first XJ model in 1968 is now comfortably past 800,000 cars – more than half of all Jaguars ever built.
Representing contemporary British automotive luxury at its best, each generation of XJ has delivered the blend of attraction that Jaguar customers demand: elegance, style, comfort and spirited performance.
The all-new XJ has all this and much more besides. Not only is it the ultimate expression of Jaguar luxury sedan car engineering, it is also the most advanced Jaguar ever.
Jaguar has a well-documented history of working with aluminum, but with the new XJ the technologies used have moved to an altogether different level.
Pioneering a new lightweight vehicle architecture that is centered on a conventional monocoque body structure rather than an unnecessarily exotic space-frame, Jaguar engineers have developed a car that is larger in every respect than the model it replaces and has more features and driver-assisting technologies – and yet weighs almost 200 lbs less than the outgoing generation. Referring to a large sedan as a lightweight vehicle may seem incongruous, but the new XJ fully deserves – and earns – this label.
The benefits of reduced mass are in place all the time, from the moment the wheel start turning. In addition to measurables such as fuel economy, emissions and performance, the subjective issues of handling and ride also feature.
In the new XJ, Jaguar’s engineers have created a vehicle that is very agile. It is also quicker and more economical than the outgoing generation. A comparison between XJRs shows that the new XJ is quicker to 60 mph (5.0 seconds versus 5.3 seconds) and yet returns superior fuel economy. Top speed of XJ8 is an electronically limited 121 mph with XJR reaching 155 mph.
These levels of customer gain in areas that are becoming ever more important, especially in the luxury sector, five the new Jaguar XJ significant advantages over its main competition. And that’s without considering the driving experience, the traditional jaguar attractions of craftsmanship, style and luxury, and the impressive array of driver-friendly technologies that make life behind the wheel of the new XJ more relaxing and enjoyable – and safer.
The U.S. XJ range consists of a high level of standard equipment and a simplified model line-up: the normally aspirated XJ8 and supercharged XJR.
Jaguar conducted extensive research programs with existing customers and potential owners prior to commencing the new XJ program.
The results of these identified that the XJ, the first design of which originated in the 1960s, had to evolve to address the requirements of today’s luxury sedan customers – including the demand for more interior space.
Addressing this without losing the distinctive proportions and character of the XJ was undeniably a challenge. Ian Callum, Jaguar Cars’ Director of Design, worked with his team to deliver a car that is bigger in all respects than its predecessor with a more spacious interior. The exterior proportions are subtly transformed to reflect the added space for occupants and their luggage.
"The new XJ is a dynamic looking car," says Callum. "And when you position it alongside major competitors, it is also clearly very elegant."
He continues: "This is a more modern car in terms of its proportions, and while for practical packaging reasons the trunk and doors are larger, the slimmer glass-to-door ratio results are in a truly contemporary design."
The new XJ design moves to a more cab-forward approach, positioning the wheels closer to the corners, incorporating a shorter hood and a shallower rake angle for the larger windshield.
The new hood retains the highly sculpted shape that is characteristic of the XJ over the years. Its leading edge – and indeed the leading edge of the fenders – still wraps around the shape of the headlights, which themselves have evolved into a more distinct element of the front design.
The new XJ’s dynamic design is also evident in its profile, says Callum. "It has a lot more of a ‘wedge’ now, starting dynamically at the front and powering toward the back. All the power is on the back wheels, something that has always been the case with Jaguar."
The XJ design team succeeded in accommodating a higher trunk lid while retaining the classic Jaguar ‘haunched’ design, hinting at the new car’s potential power and performance.
Precise weight-saving construction
With the basic design elements of a considerably larger car in place, the engineering team quickly realized that a breakthrough was needed to solve the weight dilemma. At the same time, the challenge was to enhance the performance capabilities and comprehensive list of luxury features the new XJ would offer its customers.
Compromise was unacceptable – and aluminum was the answer.
Intensive studies led by Jaguar engineers at the Whitley Engineering Center in Coventry, England had already exposed the potential value of an aluminum-intensive body structure joined in an innovative fashion using rivets and adhesives. It was soon very apparent that this was the direction to take.
"We chose the lightweight vehicle architecture for the new XJ not because it was something new," says XJ Chief Program Engineer, David Scholes, "but because it would help us deliver significant benefits for our customers. Ultimately, they may not care whether the body structure is aluminum or steel, but the Jaguar customer does care very much about performance, dynamics, fuel economy, emissions and safety. The choice was clear."
The new XJ’s body structure comprises pressings of sheet aluminum combined with aluminum alloy extrusions and aluminum castings. Jaguar’s engineers adopted the proven construction techniques of the aerospace industry to assemble this structure and in volume production, the new Jaguar XJ represents an industry-first use of rivet-bonding construction for an aluminum-intensive monocoque body.
Rivet-bonding uses self-piercing rivets and epoxy adhesives for strength, robustness and durability when joining aluminum pressings. The adhesives applied robotically during assembly, heat-cure to optimal strength during the vehicle painting process. Approaching 3,200 rivets are sued in the construction of the new body.
The body of the new XJ is significantly stiffer – by 60 percent – and lighter by 40 percent than its predecessor.
In addition to the advanced nature of the body construction, the craftsmanship and precision evident in the new XJ are indicative of Jaguar’s determination to ensure customers experience total satisfaction.
Panel gaps are smaller and even more precise than in the previous model. Door shut lines are designed with a uniform gap of 3.8 mm to the bumper, sill and an adjoining door. The doors open wide – front doors to 62 degrees, rear doors to 65 degrees – to assure ease of entry and exit for occupants.
The hood and trunk both use four-bar-link hinges equipped with gas-assisted struts, and gaps on these major closures are also extremely precise at 3.5 mm from hood to bumper and trunk to bumper. Extensive use of the lightweight components in key areas of the structure ensured the new XJ met the weight targets set by the engineering team. These areas include:
The inside story
The new Jaguar XJ’s luxurious interior has new levels of spaciousness, craftsmanship, ergonomic flexibility and seat comfort, complemented by entertainment, climate control and communications systems that reflect the needs of today’s luxury car customers.
And yet alongside these practical considerations, the interior of the new XJ remains warm and inviting – a classic Jaguar interior. Despite the generous amount of space inside the cabin, the driver and passengers still feel cosseted, the ambience set off by real walnut veneers and hand-stitched leather.
With significantly more headroom, legroom, shoulder room and rear-seat knee room, the new XJ interior provides a comfortable and relaxing environment for five adults.
The new seat designs were rated in Jaguar customer research as the most comfortable in their class. The 12- or 16-way adjustable front seats with electrically adjustable headrests are complemented by standard-fit electrically adjustable pedals and steering column, allowing drivers of widely varying statures to find the ideal driving position.
The new electronic parking brake, which eliminates the need for a traditional handbrake lever and also features drive away release, is itself an elegant design detail. Situated just behind the J-gate transmission shift lever, the electronic ‘switch’ frees additional space for the comfort of front-seat occupants.
Depending on the model or customer requirements, there is a choice of two different rear seating configurations: a fixed bench seat for three passengers, or a twin electric bench seat that accommodates three passengers.
Overall, interior volume has increased not only for occupants but also for luggage. At 6.6 cu ft., the trunk is more than 25 percent larger than the previous XJ’s – and event he glove box is bigger. The trunk can now accommodate four sets of golf clubs, while the previous XJ could accommodate two.
When XJ drivers and their passengers are comfortably settled in their seats, Jaguar’s philosophy of incorporating relevant technologies quickly becomes evident. From the intuitive and relaxed interfaces between occupants and the vehicle systems – an approach that separates Jaguar from many of its competitors – to the electronic driver aids, the new XJ makes you feel instantly at home.
"You don’t have to be a computer programmer to operate this car," comments David Scholes, XJ Chief Program Engineer. "Our customers are emphatic in their opposition to gratuitous technology and unwanted features intruding on their driving experience; it should be there when you need it but should never impose itself."
The new Jaguar XJ’s relevant technologies are centered on easing driver ergonomics, enhancing passenger comfort, expanding entertainment possibilities and developing voice-activated systems to reduce driver distractions.
Advanced telematics and communications technologies include a seven-inch LCD touchscreen display that provides fingertip control of climate, audio and DVD navigation systems (featuring zip code programming).
In the rear of the new XJ, a multimedia system allows passengers to access audio and video systems independently of the driver and front seat passenger. As an example, the front passenger can be listening to a CD, while one of the rear passengers is viewing a film on DVD and the other rear passenger plays a video game.
Two 6.5 inch color display screens, available in the optional multimedia package, are mounted in the rear of the front seat head restraints for video and TV viewing. Rear-seat passengers use headphones to listen to the audio output in comfort.
JaguarVoice, an industry-first when introduced on the S-TYPE in 1999, provides drivers and rear passengers with access to voice-activated control of compatible Jaguar systems, including primary audio functions, telephone, climate control, navigation systems and in-vehicle displays. Jaguar has made voice activation – a technology to reduce distraction when driving – an ongoing research priority. All XJs are prewired for easy installation of the desired language module.
High quality audio systems are another Jaguar trademark, and the new XJ is no exception. The eight-speaker sound system fitted to XJ8 features a single-slot CD and radio. The 320 watt Jaguar Premium sound system with 12 speakers, digital sound processing, power amplifier, subwoofers, as well as the remote six-disc CD changer and single-slot CD/radio, is standard on XJR and optional on XJ8.
Safety and crash repairThe new XJ features a comprehensive array of passive safety technologies, including Jaguar’s sophisticated Adaptive Restraint Technology System (A.R.T.S.) but at its protective core is the strength of the aluminum body.
"Our target in developing the new Jaguar XJ was to produce one of the world’s safest cars," explains David Scholes, XJ Chief Program Engineer. "And the body structure is the foundation of the car’s safety performance."
The new XJ will have excellent crash protection and repair credentials, the aluminum-intensive body structure having already proven its strength in Jaguar’s own ‘real-world’ crash-test programs. Prior to the first XJ prototype crashing into a barrier, Jaguar engineers performed more than 500 computer-simulated crash events using sophisticated crash-modeling software and this was followed up by physical tests.
Being lighter than the equivalent steel body, the XJ body structure carries significantly less kinetic energy into a collision, reducing the amount of energy that has to be absorbed by the body in an accident. Front and rear crush zones in the body structure absorb crash energy progressively while protecting the integrity of the cabin, and the ‘tube-in-tube’ propshaft features built-in crash properties to absorb collision energy.
In addition, the new XJ promises excellent side impact protection, resulting from a very strong center pillar with a wide, tapered base, extruded aluminum lateral floor reinforcements, and door beam extrusions.
The architecture of the new XJ is engineered for ease of repairability, a key factor in the determination of insurance premiums. Engineering techniques used include a bolt-on front-end module – BOFE – that is designed to reduce the cost of repairing front-end collision damage. This can withstand an impact of 10 mph without structural damage being inflicted, the assembly incorporating impact-absorbing properties between the front-end module and the body shell.
The exterior bumpers of the new XJ are designed to withstand a 5 mph impact without structural damage. Made from injection-molded plastic, they incorporate side markers and fog lamps.
In addition, ‘lift-off’ door hinges make removal simple if collision repair is needed, reducing time and cost, while the bolt-on front wings are easy to remove and replace – another repair cost savings for the owner.
As with all new Jaguars sold in the U.S., the new XJ comes with a comprehensive four-year 50,000 mile warranty.
The right tools for the jobThe Jaguar XJ was created digitally, the feat made possible by Jaguar’s investment in state-of-the-art engineering technology and processes. Building on proven systems and methodologies, including knowledge-based engineering and rapid prototyping, the new systems gave Jaguar XJ engineers greater analytical power and flexibility than ever before but also allowed them to retain total control.
"Computers don’t engineer cars, people do," says David Scholes, XJ Chief Program Engineer. "Our tools are designed to enable every member of the engineering team to achieve the excellence that is the hallmark of Jaguar."
Jaguar North America will have a repair network of facilities and trained technicians in place ahead of the XJ’s launch. These facilities will offer a two-tiered approach to structural and cosmetic damage and repair.
Over the past ten years, Jaguar has transformed its approach to quality, introducing state-of-the-art tools and procedures. The key quality technique utilized today is called simply Advanced Quality Planning (AQP). This structured methodology optimizes product quality by identifying potential problems and ‘designing out’ the issue so that it never arises. AQP covers all stages of development, from early Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) through to Statistical Process Control (SPC) of production processes. Anything that might eventually result in a potential problem – from a squeak or rattle to a major system failure – is identified and eradicated at a very early stage.
Any new Jaguar must be resilient to the widest extremes of climate, from the cold of an Alaskan winter to the heat of high summer in the Arizona desert – all the while performing at 100 percent regardless of driving styles or conditions. At prototype stage all Jaguars are subject to rigorous testing in some of the world’s most demanding conditions to verify robustness. One particularly demanding internal test simulates a vehicle lifetime through high-mileage accumulation over a wide variety of demanding and severe road conditions. Jaguar engineers were so confident that the new XJ would pass the lifespan test with flying colors – which it duly did – that they had already arranged for the same prototypes to undergo another full round of the test. The result? Another pass – so even before its public introduction, prototypes of the new XJ have already been driven over two normal lifespans! Of course Jaguar still believes in the personal touch as each XJ receives a five mile road test in the hands of a factory test driver.
Engines and powertrainOptimized to complement the XJ’s lightweight vehicle architecture and new powertrain and chassis technologies – including the state-of-the-art ZF six-speed automatic transmission – the two new engines offer effortless, refined performance and enhanced fuel economy and range.
The XJ8 shares its larger 4.2-liter AJ-V8 engine with the recently launched 2003 Jaguar S-TYPE and 2003 Jaguar XK. The increase in displacement from 4.0 to 4.2-liters delivers seven percent more power and torque.
The supercharged 4.2-liter AJ-V8 continues – and extends – the Jaguar tradition of offering the breathtaking performance of a supercharged engine with the flagship of the range. The 390 bhp (SAE) supercharged 4.2-liter engine produces 33 percent more power than the naturally aspirated version with which it shares its underlying technology.
Developed at Jaguar’s Whitley Engineering Centre in Coventry, England, both new engines deliver refined performance and driveability in the Jaguar tradition.
A dynamic approach
Jaguar sedans have always had a sporting edge and the new XJ is no exception. In fact, the use of aluminum has allowed the engineering teams to develop a car that belies its size and is extremely agile.
New front and rear suspension systems – with the refinement of standard air suspension and enhanced Computer Active Technology Suspension (CATS) adaptive damping – take ride comfort and vehicle handling to new levels.
The suspensions incorporate extensive lightweight materials and are designed to complement the lightweight but stiff aluminum body structure that provides a rigid foundation for handling, steering and braking performance.
Fitting air suspension across the whole XJ range delivers major advantages over traditional coil-spring suspension systems in terms of comfort and refinement, providing optimum ride quality regardless of load conditions and ensuring that the vehicle’s full suspension travel is always available to soak up bumps or irregular road surfaces.
The XJ’s air suspension system uses air spring/damper units in lieu of the coil-spring/damper units of a traditional system. Height sensors at the four corners of the car feed vehicle height data to an electronic control module in the trunk and the system automatically lowers the XJ’s ride height by 15 mm at 100 mph. This improves aerodynamic efficiency, vehicle stability and fuel economy during high-speed cruising.
The new XJ’s suspension system also features the latest version of Jaguar’s sophisticated CATS system as standard on all models. This optimizes ride refinement under all conditions with two-stage adaptive damping under electronic control, but is so refined that the drive is unaware that damping conditions are changing.
The new XJ also features an impressive array of electronic driver aids, including four-channel anti-lock braking (ABS) with Emergency Brake Assist (EBA), the former a latest generation system that operates in a more refined manner than previously.
EBA helps the driver in an emergency when maximum power isn’t being applied, assessing the urgency with which the driver hits the brake pedal and instantly applying maximum available braking power if it is needed.
A new Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) system reacts to and controls both understeer and oversteer, which Traction Control helps provide optimum tractive power under acceleration by preventing the drive wheels from spinning when pulling away or cornering.
Jaguar’s innovative and award-winning Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system offers major advantages over conventional cruise control systems. Using microwave radar technology to overcome the need for the driver to adjust speed – either by disengaging cruise control manually or applying the brakes – when approaching slower traffic on the road ahead, ACC automatically adjusts the throttle (and may also apply limited braking) to reach a speed that is compatible with traffic ahead.
ACC features Forward Alert, which provides an audible early warning of slowing traffic ahead but does not intervene by adjusting the throttle or applying the brakes.
The plant that Jaguar builtA new, dedicated aluminum press facility and a redeveloped body assembly facility constructed at Jaguar’s Castle Bromwich plan to product the new XJ. After assembly, the bodies are shipped by road to the Browns Lane plant for final build.
Many of the new manufacturing techniques used in XJ construction were honed by the aerospace industry. Instead of the conventional spot welding used on a steel body structure, the new Jaguar XJ uses structural adhesives and rivets to assemble the unibody structure of aluminum pressings, extrusions and castings which form the foundation of the vehicle.
Each Jaguar XJ contains approximately 3,200 rivets and nearly 400 feet of adhesives. The combination of rivets and adhesives, which cure in the heat of the subsequent paint process, results in a body structure that is extremely strong and stiff but light in weight.
The new Jaguar XJ bodyshop facility makes extensive use of automation – not unusual in modern vehicle construction, but in this case very much state-of-the-art. Eighty-eight robots apply structural adhesives and install the self-piercing rivets in the vehicle structure. Extensive simulation work using powerful computer modeling tools, combined with prototype prove-out, has ensured uncompromising Jaguar quality in each step of the assembly process.
The body assembly operation is surprisingly clean and quiet. Gone are the sights, sounds, sparks and residue of a spot-welding process. Decibel levels have been significantly reduced throughout the assembly hall. Following the application of every 30th rivet, the gun is tested for accuracy.
The lean manufacturing ethic of the new Jaguar XJ assembly process is configured for highly efficient movement of parts and components ensuring that each workstation is supplied efficiently with stock. The need for parts stores adjacent to each workstation has been cut dramatically, reducing the need for costly in-plant inventory.
Two in-house parts stores hold enough stock for approximately eight hours of assembly operation. Just-In-Time delivery from suppliers keeps these stores at their optimum fill rate.
Working together in virtual realityThe new XJ assembly facility was designed simultaneously with the engineering of the new vehicle itself – in virtual reality.
This gave manufacturing engineers the opportunity to configure an assembly plant before anything was actually built, so that the XJ’s entire body shop existed on computer prior to its installation. Every step of the production process, down to each movement of an individual robot, was modeled in this fashion.
The production of the new Jaguar XJ required a new, dedicated aluminum pressing facility. Designed, engineered and constructed by Jaguar Cars, the new 103,000 sq ft. pressing plant is operated and managed by a technical partner consortium, Polynorm Stadco, under a long-term operating contract.
Another key partner in the new XJ program is Alcan, the supplier of all the aluminum used in the car. Supplying the pressing facility via local warehouses capable of storing up to 20 days’ supply of raw material, Alcan was instrumental in the development of the construction techniques used in the new XJ, and served as the primary technical resource in early feasibility studies.
The end resultWhen the all-new XJ goes on sale in late Spring 2003, Jaguar customers will be buying not only the most advanced Jaguar ever, but also one of the most important ever. As an all-new, world-class luxury sedan, the XJ pioneers a lightweight vehicle architecture that represents a major step forward in aluminum-intensive automotive body structures.
There can be no argument that in designing, engineering and constructing the new XJ, Jaguar has moved both itself and the wider automotive industry forward in the drive to reduce weight and enjoy the resulting benefits in terms of performance, fuel economy, emissions, crash safety, vehicle dynamics and recyclability.
The new technologies and pioneering techniques not only make the XJ the car it is, they also reinforce Jaguar’s standing as a world leader in advanced vehicle design and relevant, user-friendly driver aids.
And if you think the new XJ is impressive so far, just wait until you drive it…
AND NOT A LOT OF PEOPLE KNOW THAT…
EXTERIOR DESIGN AND ENGINEERING
"Our challenge was twofold. First, the new car clearly had to be instantly recognizable, capturing the essence and style of XJ but in a more modern idiom. Our other challenge was to give customers more room – enough for five adults to rider comfortably. That meant creating a larger vehicle to deliver more headroom, more legroom and more luggage space."
Ian Callum, Director of Design, Jaguar Cars s
Larger, more spacious car retains distinctive XJ proportionsCustomer research made it clear that the XJ – whose first design originated in the 1960s as a sports sedan – had to evolve to address the requirements of today’s luxury sedan customers. One clear demographic trend is that people are larger today and the new XJ had to address this without losing its distinctive character and proportions in the process.
The new Jaguar XJ delivered by Callum and his design team is longer, taller and wider than its predecessor with a more spacious interior. Under Callum’s leadership, the exterior proportions of the Jaguar XJ have subtly transformed to reflect the added space for occupants and their luggage.
"The new XJ is quite a dynamic looking car," says Callum. "When you position it alongside major competitors, it is also clearly a very elegant car. It’s much more robust looking than the previous model, creating a real presence on the road."
"This is also a more modern looking car in terms of its proportions," explains Callum. "Although, for practical packaging reasons, the trunk and doors are larger, the slimmer glass-to-door proportions result in a truly contemporary design."
The new XJ design moves to a more cab-forward approach, positioning the wheels closer to the corners, incorporating a shorter hood and a shallower rake angle for the larger windshield.
Reinterprets classic XJ dynamic design cuesThe new generation reinterprets the classic XJ dynamic design cues. The new hood retains the highly sculpted shape that is characteristic of the XJ over the years. Its leading edge – and indeed the leading edge of the fenders – still wraps around the shape of the headlights, which themselves have evolved into a more distinct element of the front design. The new four-light design incorporates the directional indicators and parking lights, giving the front end a cleaner look.
To differentiate the new XJ from its predecessor, the design team crafted a new grille design to sit alongside the mesh grille of the XJR. Distinguished by intersecting vertical and horizontal bars, it was inspired by the original XJ6.
More dynamic in profile"The new XJ’s dynamic design is also evident in its profile," says Callum. "It has a lot more of a wedge in its profile now. It starts quite dynamically at the front and powers toward the back. All the power is on the back wheels, something that has always been the case with a Jaguar."
The XJ design team succeeded in crafting the XJ’s rear to accommodate a higher trunk lid while retaining the classic Jaguar ‘haunched’ design, hinting at the new car’s potential power and performance. The new XJ also evokes the classic Jaguar boat-tail shape, accentuated by the slope of the higher trunk lid.
New Xenon headlightsNew Xenon headlights, reinforcing the assertive vehicle dynamics of the new Jaguar XJ, are standard on XJR and optional on XJ8.
Distinctive LED tail lampsThe rear design incorporates distinctive light-emitting diode (LED) tail lights for the first time in a Jaguar. Mounted behind clear lenses, the LED units provide stop and tail light functions in a unique array. They also incorporate direction indicators, reversing lights and reflectors. The XJ’s high-mounted stop light also uses an LED design.
Larger but lighter new body and innovative aerospace technology
As clever as the design team were in maintaining the visual links with the Jaguar XJ heritage, a larger XJ posed an even greater challenge for Jaguar engineers. Equipped with even more features, as well as being bigger, this would surely mean increased weight. Without innovation, the new vehicle would have suffered in terms of performance, fuel economy and range, and emissions.
Led by Chief Program Engineer David Scholes, the engineering team quickly realized that a breakthrough was needed to solve the weight dilemma, while simultaneously enhancing the performance capabilities and comprehensive list of luxury features the new XJ would offer its customers.
Intensive studies led by Jaguar engineers at the Whitley Engineering Center in Coventry, England – working closely with their colleagues in Ford Research Laboratories in Dearborn, USA – had already shown the potential for adapting aerospace-style rivet-bonding to create a body shell from aluminum instead of steel. The technology delivered not only significant weight savings, but also major advances in body stiffness, benefiting vehicle dynamics, safety, refinement and durability.
"We chose the lightweight vehicle architecture for the new XJ not because it was something new," says David Scholes, "but because it would help us deliver significant benefits for our customers. Ultimately, they may not care whether the body structure is aluminum or steel, but the Jaguar customer does care very much about performance, dynamics, fuel economy, emissions and safety. So the choice was clear."
AS a result, the body of the new XJ is significantly stiffer and lighter than its predecessor. The protective strength of its architecture also represents a groundbreaking advance in crashworthiness.
Rivet-bonding aluminum: an industry first in volume production
In volume production, the new Jaguar XJ represents an industry-first use of rivet-bonding construction of an aluminum-intensive, conventionally structured monocoque body.
Rivet-bonding uses self-piercing rivets and aerospace epoxy adhesives for strength, robustness and durability, when joining aluminum pressings. The adhesives, applied robotically during assembly, heat-curve to optimal strength during the vehicle painting process. Almost 3,200 rivets are used in the construction of the new body.
The exterior and interior structures of the hood and trunk are assembled using structural adhesives and a joining method called spot-clinching, in which one metal surface is physically clinched over the other in a series of joins similar in size to spot-welds. The edges of the hood and trunk are finished with a special ‘anti-flutter’ adhesive to reduce wind-noise potential.
Extensive use of light-weight components in key areas of structure
40 percent lighter and 60 percent stifferThese methods combine to produce a new body structure that is up to 40 percent lighter than the equivalent steel body with impressive torsional stiffness, (a measure of the body’s tendency to flex under pressure) of more than 21,700 kg-m/deg representing a 60 percent improvement on its predecessor. Stiffness is important for ride comfort and handling precision, avoiding squeaks and rattles and aiding long-term durability.
Closing the door on noise
Creating a quiet cabin is a challenge for automotive engineers, who battle to eliminate unwanted wind noise, tire roar and powertrain noise. At Jaguar, the science of sound is used not only to reduce noise but to actually shape it within the occupant cabin as part of the most comprehensive acoustic program ever undertaken by Jaguar engineers.
The modular doors of the new XJ are examples of Jaguar’s obsessive approach to creating a superbly refined cabin environment. They feature a high-strength upper structure, achieved with a hybrid structure of aluminum extrusions, castings and pressings that helps to resist aerodynamic pressure – particularly at high speeds – thereby minimizing wind noise. New triple door seals also protect against wind and road noise intrusion.
The new doors also close with a sound of reassuring quality, achieved through the elimination of metal-to-metal contact and applying ‘acoustic damping’ to individual components of the door. As a result, not only is each of the new XJ’s doors easy on the ear, they are also easy to open and close, thanks to the lightweight vehicle architecture.
Secondary bulkhead for enhanced cabin refinementA secondary bulkhead structure separating the engine compartment from the occupant cabin improves rigidity and benefits the cabin refinement.
Other measures to ensure optimum cabin refinement include:
Tailored precision: Jaguar craftsmanship more than meets the eyeCraftsmanship and precision are clearly evident in the new Jaguar XJ. Panel gaps are smaller and even more precise than in the previous model.
The shut lines of the doors are designed for a uniform gap of 3.8 mm to the bumper sill and an adjoining door. The doors open wide – front doors to 62 degrees, rear doors to 65 degrees – to assure ease of entry and exit for occupants.
The hood and trunk both use four-bar-link hinges equipped with gas-assisted struts. The hood opens to an angle of 54 degrees. The trunk opens to 86 degrees, and is equipped with a release lever that allows it to be opened from within in an emergency.
Gaps on these major closures are also extremely precise being designed to be 3.5 mm from hood to bumper and trunk to bumper.
Repairability and insurance premiumsThe new architecture of the XJ is engineered for repairability, a key factor in the determination of insurance premiums. Engineering techniques include a Bolt-On Front End module – designed to reduce the cost of repairing front-end collision damage – that can withstand an impact of 10 mph without inflicting structural damage. The assembly incorporates impact-absorbing properties between the front-end module and the body shell.
Elements of the Bolt-On assembly include:
Park Control SystemThe new Jaguar XJ is equipped as standard with Rear Park Control technology, and Front Park Control is available.
Park Control warns the driver when the vehicle is approaching the proximity of another vehicle or a hard surface, like a wall or post in a car park. It emits a series of beep tones that increase in frequency as the vehicle approaches the object. At about 8 inches, the beep becomes a continuous tone.
The rear system becomes operational whenever reverse gear is selected with the ignition on. Park Control uses four ultrasonic sensors mounted in the bumpers.
Rain-Sensing wiper systemThe new XJ is equipped with a new rain-sensing wiper system that automatically activates the wipers when rain or moisture is detected. The system has two speed settings, automatically selected depending on conditions. The wipers also feature a handy ‘drip’ function. This feature provides an additional pass of the wipers to catch the final drip of water or washer solvent that often runs down the windshield after the wipers have been switched off. Additionally, when in rain-sensing mode, the system now automatically turns on the headlamps when the wipers are in operation as required by law in many states.
Non-stick windshield wiper bladesAn electrical heating element embedded in the base of the windshield prevents the wiper blades from sticking to the screen in sub-zero temperatures.
Power fold-back exterior mirrorsWhen parked in a confined space, the optional power-fold mirrors can be retracted by pressing a switch in the driver door armrest. The fold-back function can also be controlled by the remote control transmitter that locks and unlocks the doors. All exterior mirrors feature electrical heating, activated whenever the heated rear window is switched on, and electrochromic self-dimming.
Ground illuminationWhen approaching the XJ in dark conditions, the driver can activate a ground illumination feature with the integrated key transmitter. Lights mounted in the underside of the exterior mirrors illuminate the ground close to the doors.
Glass moonroofA glass, electric moonroof that operates with a single-touch open/close function to tilt and slide is standard on both XJ8 and XJR models. It features an anti-trap mechanism and sliding sunblind.
INTERIOR DESIGN AND ENGINEERING
"The new Jaguar XJ’s luxurious interior environment is exemplified by new levels of spaciousness, craftsmanship, ergonomic flexibility and seat comfort – all complemented by entertainment, climate control and communications systems that reflect the needs of today’s luxury car customers."
Ian Callum, Director of Design, Jaguar Cars
A warm, inviting, ‘classic Jaguar’ interior
Ian Callum describes the all-new XJ’s interior as ‘classic Jaguar,’ in which craftsmanship is the highest priority.
"The interior is what you really fall in love with," says Callum. "It epitomizes what a Jaguar interior should be – warm, inviting, and not imposing. I always say that you should get out of a Jaguar feeling better than you did when you got in it, and that’s certainly true of this new XJ."
Comprehensively equipped with contemporary luxury car technology but restrained and conservative in style, the new XJ is distinguished by classic Jaguar design cues and hallmark attention to detail. This is complemented by real walnut veneers for the fascia, center console and door trims, together with new, softer leathers. The new seat designs are rated in Jaguar customer research as having the best comfort in their class. With 12- or 16-way adjustable front seats with electrically adjustable headrests and two different options for rear seating configurations, the new Jaguar XJ is equipped to pamper its occupants.
Significantly more headroom, legroom, shoulder room and rear-seat knee room combine to make the new XJ interior a comfortable and relaxing environment for five adults. Overall interior has increased not only for occupants but for luggage. Even the glove box is bigger.
Standard-fit electrically adjustable pedals and steering column allow drivers of widely varying statures to configure their preferred driving position.
A virtuoso Jaguar touch for the new XJ: Piano BlackEvery new XJ model features a virtuoso design touch that could only come from Jaguar. Piano Black is inspired by the deep black sheen of a concert grand piano and accentuates the center console and the J-gate surround of every new XJ.
Piano Black is a lustrous, satin-polished black finish that immediately differentiates the Jaguar XJ from rivals, adding the kind of subtle cachet found in other exclusive luxury goods. It is perhaps a small detail, but it reflects the importance of Jaguar craftsmanship to attention to such details in executing a luxury interior for discerning customers.
In every dimension, a more spacious Jaguar XJ
Improving interior and luggage space was a top priority for the development team. Longer, wider, and taller, the new XJ answers this desire without diminishing the style and panache of the Jaguar character. The new XJ has room for three adults to sit comfortably in the rear seat, with increased head room (38.4 inches), leg room (38.7 inches), knee room (2.8 inches) and shoulder room (58.3 inches) compared with the previous model.
Front-seat occupants also gain more space including almost 2 inches more leg room and approximately one inch more head and shoulder room.
Trunk space in the new XJ is also significantly bigger. Total trunk volume is up 3.9 cubic ft. – more than 25 percent – over the previous model. At 16.6 cubic ft. capacity, the new trunk has room for four golf bags, while still accommodating a full-size spare tire beneath the luggage compartment. The glove box is also larger, its design reflecting extensive customer research and feedback. The on-touch, chromium-plated release button is offset from the center for easier driver reach. A dedicated power point for accessories is located in the glove box, allowing a mobile phone to be recharged out of sight.
An easy-to-reach overhead console provides access to controls for cabin lights, moonroof operation and pre-programmed garage door or gate openers and rear sunblinds (if fitted). The console also contains microphones for integral telephone and JaguarVoice technology.
Comfortable new seats earn top marksInput from current XJ owners has been essential in achieving truly world-class comfort in the new model’s seating systems.
Key attributes of the new seating designs include:
Two distinct luxury interior design choicesClassic interior – Standard on the XJ8, the Classic interior features color-keyed upper fascia, door top rolls and carpeting, complemented by leather seat trim, and real burr walnut veneer on the fascia, center console, gear knob and door trims. Now standard on the XJ8 is a wood and leather rimmed steering wheel.
The new 12-way seats have horizontal flutes. In the rear, a fixed rear bench seat with two manually adjustable head restraints is standard equipment, but premium luxury package owners may opt at extra cost for a twin electric bench seat with center console and power adjustment of lumbar support, seat back and head restraints.
Classic interiors feature contrasting color combinations, including dove/granite, sand/sable and all-charcoal option can also be selected.
Premium Luxury Package – The opulence of the XJ8 with premium luxury package is characterized by elements of the Classic interior with exclusive touches of added luxury, including plush, soft-grain ruched leather seats and trim, standard 16-way power-adjustable front seats, variable-heated seat cushions and backrests, power sunblind, lambswool rugs, Alpine audio system and upholstered dashtop. Exclusive to the Premium Luxury Package is an available ivory interior.
Performance Interior – The new Jaguar XJR features an exclusive interior design that reflects its performance capabilities. A unique seat design with 16-way power adjustability for the driver and front-seat passenger, has more pronounced lateral bolsters for the back and thighs to provide exactly the right balance of support and comfort.
Additional standard features on the XJR include heated front and rear seats, heated wood and leather steering wheel, power rear sunblind, and Alpine audio system, and radar-based adaptive cruise control (ACC).
Jaguar’s ‘relevant technologies’ philosophyJaguar’s philosophy on technology is clearly evident from the intuitive and relaxed interfaces between the occupants and the vehicle systems – and approach that separates Jaguar from many of its competitors.
"You don’t have to be a computer programmer to operate this car," insists David Scholes, XJ Chief Program Engineer. "Our customers are emphatic in their opposition to gratuitous technology and unwanted features intruding on their driving experience, so the Jaguar philosophy is one of making technology relevant. It should be there when you need it but it should never impose itself."
The Jaguar XJ’s relevant technologies are centered on easing driver ergonomics, enhancing passenger comfort, expanding entertainment possibilities and developing voice-activated systems to reduce driver distractions.
Advanced telematics and communications technologies include a seven-inch LCD touchscreen display that employs thin-film transistor technology (TFT) to provide finger-tip control of climate, audio and DVD navigation systems (featuring zip code programming). The rear multimedia systems allows passengers to enjoy access to audio, TV, video and telephone systems independently of the driver or front seat passenger. They have the freedom to watch a DVD, for example, with no link to the front of the car. This exceptionally high level of integration is facilitated by fiber optics for fast, high quality data transfer.
Advanced telematics and communications systems
A second climate control unit serves the individually adjustable rear seating positions. Operated by a control panel in the center console, it allows passengers to choose a preferred temperature between 63°Fand 89°F, manually select from among seven available fan speeds and configure the air flow to the face, foot or bi-level, or alternatively choose a fully automatic mode to maintain the desired temperature.
Sophisticated electrical networkThe complex functionality of the Jaguar XJ’s array of luxury features depends on a sophisticated electrical system.
New functionality for the XJ is Smart Charging, a battery load management technology that manages the charging of the battery and its power supply to the vehicle. If the battery is low, Smart Charging prioritizes the vehicle’s electrical functions, allowing only essential systems to operate until the engine has been started and the battery receives charge.
The XJ’s battery is mounted inside the trunk, under the floor, adjacent to the spare wheel. This keeps it away from temperature extremes and so extends its life, while also improving weight distribution in the vehicle.
The XJ’s primary, 12-volt wiring system features electrical harnesses for the body, engine compartment, instrument panel and the engine itself. The new XJ also features a harness dedicated to the telematics systems. Additionally, XJ features extensive use of multiplexing to deliver sophisticated functionality, with four systems integrated:
POWERTRAIN"A range of more powerful, responsive engines combined with a new lightweight vehicle architecture is the recipe for a luxury sedan that delivers outstanding performance, excellent driveability, new levels of refinement and improved fuel economy and emissions."
David Scholes, Chief Program Engineer, Jaguar XJ
A range of powerful and refined eight-cylinder enginesThe new Jaguar XJ is available with tow eight-cylinder engines:
The larger 4.2-liter AJ-V8 engine is already used in the new Jaguar S-TYPE and 2003 Jaguar XK. The increase in displacement from 4.0 to 4.2 liters delivers seven percent more power and torque.
The supercharged 4.2-liter AJ-V8 continues – and extends – the Jaguar tradition of offering the breathtaking performance of a supercharged engine in the flagship of the range. The 390 bhp (SAE) supercharged 4.2-liter engine produces 33 percent more power than the naturally aspirated version with which it shares its underlying technology. On the way to its staggering torque potential of 399 lb ft (SAE), this engine produces more torque at 2000 rev/min than the BMW 745 achieves at its peak – and this in a car considerably lighter.
Developed at Jaguar’s Whitley Engineering Center in Coventry, England, both new engines deliver refined performance and driveability in the Jaguar tradition.
New Aj-V8 engine familyThe new family of AJ-V8 engines delivers the outstanding flexibility, refinement and driveability Jaguar owners expect.
The range is led by the new 4.2-liter Aj-V8 engine, which is available in both naturally aspirated and supercharged versions. It replaces the respected 4.0-liter AJ-V8 used in the previous-generation XJ.
The 4196 cc, four-cam engine whose eight-cylinders are configured in a 90 degree V configuration, is characterized by enhanced refinement, fuel economy benefits and improved emissions performance.
The increased displacement and longer stroke of the 4.2 liter improves driveability and increases power throughout the rev range, with particular benefit at lower engine speeds. The already high compression ratio is increased to 11:1 (from 1.5:1), benefiting combustion efficiency. The inlet manifold structure is also optimized for improved response.
New, tuned inlet manifolds increase the engine’s performance throughout the range, by improving air/fuel distribution. This complements enhancements to the combustion system that reduce cold start emissions and improve low emission/high economy calibrations.
A responsive, vane-type Variable Cam Phasing (VCP) system optimizes the camshaft timing to deliver high torque across the rev range, improve idle stability and reduce emissions.
The normally aspirated 4.2-liter AJ-V8 brings a seven percent increase in power and torque over the outgoing 4.0-lietr AJ-V8, delivering 294 bhp (SAE) at 6000 rev/min. Peak torque of 303 lb ft (SAE) is produced at 4100 rev/min.
Supercharged 4.2-liter AJ-V8. The supercharged version of the 4.2-liter V8 is the heart of Jaguar’s performance flagship, the XJR. This achieves a peak horsepower of 390 bph at 6100 rev/min, a 33 percent increase over the normally aspirated variant. At least 86 percent of peak torque is available from 2000 rev/min to a peak of 399 lb ft (SAE) at 3500 rev/min. The supercharged 4.2-liter engine delivers eight percent greater power and five percent more torque than the previous 4.0-liter AJ-V8.
Forged, oil-cooled pistons, high fin-density intercoolers and a unique twin fuel pump system are fitted to handle the increased output. The mechanically driven Eaton supercharger has excellent boost characteristics which, combined with twin intercoolers, results in outstanding performance under all driving conditions. The Eaton supercharger spins 5 percent faster than the unit on its 4.0-liter engine predecessor.
The supercharged 4.2-liter AJ-V8 powers the flagship XJR.
Engineering features of the AJ-V8 enginesThe two V8 engine variants share many common engineering features, highlighted by:
The ZF transmission employs a planetary gear train principle using Lepelletier-type gear sets. This facilitates six forward gears with a dramatically reduced number of components – some 30 percent fewer than the XJ’s previous five-speed automatic. The result is a wide gear ratio spread and higher torque capacity that satisfy exacting performance requirements for off-the-line acceleration, high maximum speed and excellent fuel economy.
The transmission is controlled by a Bosch ‘Mechatronic’ brain – an integrated electro-hydraulic control module, housed as a single unit inside the transmission. The control module ensures the quality and consistency of gear shifts, as each module’s ECU (electronic control unit) is calibrated to its own unique hydraulic control body during the manufacturing process.
Using microhybrid printed circuit board technology, the ECU of the electrohydraulic module is compact and lightweight. Enclosed in a sealed metal housing, it remains totally impervious to the high temperatures and vibration that result from the unit being located inside the transmission. With a significantly reduced number of components and electrical connections, the Mechatronic control module also increases the overall reliability and robustness of the automatic transmission.
The new geartrain system and the use of plastic for the oil sump and the body of the Mechatronic control module, reduces weight by around 24 pounds compared with the previous five-speed automatic transmission.
Adaptive gearshift strategies for improved responseThe electronic brain of the new six-speed ZF automatic transmission incorporates adaptive strategies which improve accessibility to vehicle performance in demanding driving conditions while maintaining a relaxed experience when cruising.
In ‘Sport’ mode, throttle pedal usage and cornering behavior are monitored to assess driving style and road conditions. When an enthusiastic driving style or a demanding road is detected, sixth gear is inhibited and the lower gears become more accessible in order to prevent unwanted ‘hunting’ between gears. Conversely, when cruising conditions are detected, sixth gear is once again made available to maximize driving refinement and economy.
Under heavy braking, the transmission will perform one or more downshifts to improve response to subsequent accelerator pedal application. Similarly if the throttle pedal is released rapidly following hard acceleration, one or more upshifts are inhibited to increase engine braking and also improve subsequent response. To complement these features, when cornering is detected transmission upshifts are inhibited and this is maintained for a short distance after the corner allowing the driver to achieve a smooth balance through the bend without unwanted shifts mid-corner.
New electronic ‘J-gate’ gear selectorJaguar’s unique ‘J-gate’ gear selector system is adapted to suit the new six-speed transmission and now features electronic control, contributing to smoother shift operation and ergonomics. A shorter-throw lever action provides more positive driver feedback, and the driver now has a better view of the gear indicator of the J-gate sited alongside the shift lever.
Key features of the J-gate include:
A switch adjacent to the J-gate allows selection between normal and sport shift modes. When the latter is selected, the gearshift points are extended to make full use of the engine’s power.
New XJ drivelineThe Jaguar XJ driveline is engineered to transmit power to the rear wheels with robustness, refinement and weight-efficiency. Key elements include:
VEHICLE DYNAMICS"The XJ’s light weight and stiff chassis give it extremely precise steering, highly capable handling and a refined, reassuring ride quality. When you get behind the wheel, it seems to shrink into a sports sedan; it feels connected but never nervous, which inspires driver confidence."
Mike Cross, Chief Engineer, Vehicle Integrity, Jaguar Cars
New front and rear suspension systems – with the refinement of standard air suspension and enhanced CATS adaptive damping – take ride comfort and vehicle handling to new levels in the new Jaguar XJ. The new suspension systems incorporate extensive lightweight materials and are designed to complement the light but very stiff aluminum body.
The stiff structure provides a rigid foundation for handling, steering and braking performance, ensuring optimal performance of the XJ’s highly capable chassis sytems.
The new Jaguar XJ chassis features include:
Air suspension as standardThe new Jaguar XJ is fitted with air suspension across the range. This delivers major advantages over traditional coil-spring suspension systems in terms of ride comfort and refinement, providing optimum comfort regardless of load conditions and ensuring that the vehicle’s full suspension travel is always available to soak up bumps or irregular road surfaces.
The XJ’s air suspension system uses air spring/damper units in lieu of the coil-spring/damper units of a traditional system. A unique top-mount feature isolates each damper from the body structure while maintaining the pressure within the spring. This design detail enhances the refinement and comfort of the XJ’s ride quality. In addition, spring stiffness increases according to payload.
A compressor located behind the front bumper beam feeds compressed air toa .16 cu ft. reservoir located in the XJ’s trunk under the spare wheel. Here, it is stored at a maximum pressure of 218 psi and distributed to the individual spring/damper units by a solenoid-driver valve block.
Height sensors at the four corners of the vehicle feed vehicle height data to an electronic control module in the trunk. On de-restricted roads, the system automatically lowers the XJ’s ride height by over 15 mm at 100 mph. This improves aerodynamic efficiency, vehicle stability and fuel economy during high-speed cruising.
The air suspension system is programmed with several additional operating modes:
New front and revised rear suspensionsThe Jaguar XJ’s new double-wishbone front and rear suspension systems feature lightweight materials to reduce unsprung mass. Together with isolated subframes, this benefits ride comfort, handling and steering precision.
The front suspension – along with the steering system – is mounted to the body via an isolated subframe of fabricated steel. The subframe locates the lower control-arm mountings, the engine’s
Rear suspension elements include:
Enhanced Computer Active Technology Suspension (CATS)The new XJ’s suspension system also features the latest version of Jaguar’s sophisticated CATS system, which is standard on both models.
CATS optimizes ride refinement under all conditions with two-stage adaptive damping under electronic control, but is so refined that the driver is unaware that damping conditions are changing.
Benefits of the enhanced CATS system include:
CATS dampers have two sets of characteristics, governed by the same electronic control unit (ECU) that controls the air suspension system. Sensor inputs are provided by vertical accelerometers on the bulkhead and in the luggage compartment, a lateral accelerometer within the under-hood engine control module house, and a brake switch. The ECU automatically adjusts the damper settings in microseconds to suit driving conditions, thereby optimizing ride and handling.
The result is a unique combination of agile handling, outstanding ride comfort and driver control that complements the performance capabilities and luxury character of the new Jaguar XJ.
New electronic parking brakeNew to the XJ is the convenience of electronic parking brake technology, as seen on the new 2003 S-TYPE. A small handle in the center console replaces the lever that for decades has been the typical approach to parking brakes.
Eliminating the old parking brake lever frees even more space for occupants. The new electronic system operates automatically, activating when the ignition key is removed. The parking brake is also configured to release automatically when the vehicle is shifted into gear to be driven off.
The electronic parking brake can be operated manually if required by pulling the switch upwards to engage or down to disengage. Should the brake be applied when the vehicle is in motion, an audible and light warning will be activated to alert the driver. The system operates via an electrical actuator mounted on the rear subframe, which pulls cable connected to the rear brake calipers.
New braking system and electronic driver aidsThe new Jaguar XJ features robust stopping capabilities and a comprehensive array of electronic driver aids.
On the XJ8, the braking system comprises 12.6" diameter, 1.18" thick ventilated discs, fitted with two-piston floating aluminum calipers at the front. 11.3" diameter, .79" thick ventilated discs, fitted with single, floating aluminum calipers and 1.69" pistons are used at the rear.
New XJs features a bulkhead-mounted vacuum booster, designed for engine-bay venting for improved refinement. This ensures that the discs and calipers operate at maximum efficiency and contributes to responsive pedal feel under all driving conditions.
Assured stopping: Four-channel ABS with Emergency Brake Assist (EBA)Across the range, the new XJ is equipped with a sophisticated four-channel anti-lock braking system (ABS) as well as Emergency Brake Assist (EBA). The new ABS system operates in a more refined manner than previous generation systems.
EBA helps the driver in an emergency when maximum power isn’t being applied. Often in emergency braking, the driver does not press the brake pedal hard enough and, if this occurs, EBA steps in to help. New travel and pressure sensors on the booster and brake master cylinder sense emergency braking by assessing the urgency with which the driver hits the brake pedal. Maximum available braking power is then instantly applied.
Brembo brakes for XJRJaguar XJR features a Brembo braking system, designed to match the performance capabilities of this supercharged model. XJR models are also fitted with lightweight steel-braided brake hoses. Brembo’s monobloc calipers – developed from racing technology and manufactured from single aluminum castings – provide high levels of stiffness and low weight for optimal high-speed braking, while the four piston design facilitates a larger pad area and helps maintain uniform pressure distribution across the pad surfaces.
At the front, 14.4" x 1.26" ventilated discs are mated with Brembo aluminum, four-piston monobloc calipers embossed with the Jaguar R Performance logo. Solid rear discs (13" x .59") are fitted with aluminum two-piece, fixed, opposed four-piston calipers. The parking brake has a single-piston floating caliper.
The new Jaguar XJR recorded stopping distances of 118 ft from 62.5 mph to zero in testing. This was up to 14 percent more efficient than key luxury competitors and is another advantage of the XJ’s lightweight vehicle architecture.
Traction controlThe traction control system helps provide the driver with optimum tractive power under acceleration. It helps prevent the drive wheels from spinning, benefiting the XJ driver under such conditions as powering away from a T-junction or in a turning maneuver. It cal also prevent the rear end of the vehicle from breaking away if too much power is applied on a slippery surface or when cornering.
Traction control uses ABS system components to apply brake pressure selectively to individual rear wheels to prevent wheelspin. The system can also intervene by reducing engine torque or, dependent on conditions, a combination of both methods.
Dynamic Stability Control suppresses understeer and oversteerA new Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) system is fitted on both new XJs. A driving safety enhancement that intervenes when the vehicle is at the limits of its grip. DSC detects and counteracts the oversteer and understeer situations that can occur when a driver encounters unexpected road conditions.
DSC system uses active wheel-speed sensors at each wheel, a yaw sensor, a lateral acceleration sensor and a steering angle sensor to monotor the vehicle’s movement in relation to the driver’s inputs. The system also monitors brake system pressure and engine torque.
If the system perceives that the driver’s intended direction does not match that of the vehicle, it intervenes by applying brake force to any required combination of the four wheels.
Should the vehicle oversteer for example, with the rear wheels sliding out in a cornering maneuver, DSC applies the outboard front brake to correct the yaw moment and stabilize the vehicle handling. In an understeer situation, in which the front wheels tend to plow forward instead of turning the vehicle, DSC applies brake pressure to the inboard rear wheel to help correct direction.
In emergency steering maneuvers that threaten to put the vehicle at the limits of its grip, DSC can intervene to reduce the danger of loss of control. In addition, excessive engine torque that causes understeer or oversteer behavior can be counteracted by DSC.
The DSC system operates automatically, but can be manually switched off by the driver. When switched off, a warning illuminates.
The DSC ECU features increased processing power. It facilitates the use of more sensors to monitor vehicle operations and with greater measuring precision and actuates the hydraulic modulator that controls brake system intervention.
Steering precisionThe Jaguar XJ is equipped with a ZF Servotronic power-assisted steering system with specially tuned speed-sensitivity. The steering feel is characterized by taut precision and a strong feeling of connectivity. This is a recognized Jaguar attribute that enthusiastic drivers cite as differentiating the XJ from its German and Japanese competitors.
The speed sensitivity of the steering sytem is precisely calibrated for each engine and suspension combination of the new XJ. The Servotronic ‘curve’ controls the relationship between the steering effort and the vehicle speed by applying an opposing hydraulic reaction force to raise efforts as the vehicle speed increases. The system also ensures Jaguar XJ’s effortless low-speed maneuverability for the ease of parking.
Jaguar XJ wheel and tire rangeThe new Jaguar XJ features four specially developed wheel/tire combinations, each contributing to the optimal ride and handling balance:
Jaguar Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with Forward AlertJaguar’s innovative and award-winning ACC system is standard on XJR and offers major advantages over conventional cruise control systems.
ACC was pioneered on Jaguar’s XK8 sports car in 1999 and uses microwave radar technology to overcome the need for the driver to adjust speed – either by disengaging cruise control manually or applying the brakes – when approaching slower traffic on the road ahead. Instead, ACC automatically adjusts the throttle – and may also apply limited raking – to reach a speed that is compatible with traffic ahead.
The ACC microwave radar sensor – which weighs less than 2.2 lbs – takes 40 individual measurements on each horizontal scan to maintain a constant watch over traffic conditions. Other systems make far fewer measurements.
ACC now also features Forward Alert, which provides an audible warning of slowing traffic ahead but does not intervene by adjusting the throttle or applying the brakes. Forward Alert uses the same radar sensors.
SAFETY AND SECURITY"The new Jaguar XJ is engineered to world-class crash-protection standards, the strength of its light vehicle structure providing a solid foundation for outstanding safety protection."
David Scholes, Chief Program Engineer, Jaguar XJ
The new XJ features a comprehensive array of safety technologies, including Jaguar’s sophisticated Adaptive Restraint Technology System (A.R.T.S.). But at its protective core is the strong body shell that is the result of its lightweight vehicle architecture.
The new Jaguar XJ’s aluminum-intensive body structure has already proven its strength in the crash-testing laboratory. Lighter than the equivalent steel body, the XJ body structure carries significantly less kinetic energy into a collision, reducingt the amount of energy that must be absorbed by the body in an accident.
"Our target in developing the new Jaguar XJ was to produce one of the world’s safest cars," comments David Scholes, XJ Chief Program Engineer. "And the body structure is the foundation of its excellent safety performance."
Sophisticated crash-modeling computer techniquesThe ultra-strong rivet-bonded aluminum-intensive construction techniques used in the Jaguar XJ were pioneered in the aerospace industry and feature extensively in modern aircraft design.
The new XJ has excelled in Jaguar’s internal testing, undergoing numerous frontal, side and rear impact tests. Prior to the first XJ prototype crashing into a barrier, Jaguar engineers performed more than 500 computer-simulated crash events using sophisticated crash-modelling software.
Jaguar’s internal testing simulates real-world accident situations, in the same way as the independent Euro-NCAP and US-NCAP testing programs. The new XJ will be one of the first vehicles designed to meet the more stringent U.S. crash performance standards (FMVSS208) introduced during 2003.
Key features of the XJ’s protective bodyshell structure
A.R.T.S. – The science of safety technologyThe new XJ is equipped with Jaguar’s Adaptive Restraint Technology System (A.R.T.S.). Originally introduced on XK sports cars in 2001 and then added on S-TYPE sedans in 2002, A.R.T.S. employs the world’s most comprehensive and sophisticated sensing technologies to monitor the position of the front passenger, while other sensors detect the passenger’s weight, the position of the driver in relation to the steering wheel and the usage – or not – of seat belts.
A.R.T.S. has the capability to sense the severity of a collision and deploy the vehicle’s passive safety systems according to type and magnitude of collision. As a result, the system optimizes restraint protection for vehicle occupants, reducing the risk of air bag-induced injuries. A.R.T.S. also serves to reduce unnecessary passenger air bag deployments, thereby reducing the cost of accident repairs.
Key elements of A.R.T.S. include:
Comprehensive security systemsThe new XJ is comprehensively equipped to provide reassuring protection against theft of and from the vehicle.
Engine immobilization systemThe XJ’s security systems are controlled by the multiplexed body electrical system. Integration of the security system with the vehicle electronics and engine management makes it extremely difficult for a thief to enter of steal the car.
The sophisticated engine immobilization system is integral with the engine management system, shutting down all fueling ignition and cranking functions. A uniquely coded transponder is located in the ignition key head to individually identify the key. Over 34 billion code combinations are available and include encrypted data for security against copying.
Security on the new XJ extends beyond the electronics systems. The doorframes are a case in point being designed to resist the attempts of the most determined thief to lever them away from the body in an attempt to forcibly enter the car.
Integrated key transmitterThe security systems are operated remotely by a Radio Frequency, battery-operated integrated key transmitter. The transmitter uses a random encrypted code algorithm, which provides over four billion combinations of fixed and encrypted rolling codes each time the system is used, overcoming the problem of signal grabbing faced by conventional RF systems.
The engine can only be activated by inserting the ignition key, which initiates a sophisticated decoding process to validate the transponder code. This involves three-way communication of a coded algorithm between the instrument cluster, engine control module and key transponder. The agreement of all three systems on the transponder coding is necessary before the engine will start.
Additional security features include:
ENGINEERING AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS"The new Jaguar XJ was created with the help of highly sophisticated computer technology that gave the entire product development team a tremendous ability to collaborate."
David Sholes, Chief Program Engineer, Jaguar XJ
An all-new, world-class luxury sedan, the Jaguar XJ pioneers a new lightweight vehicle architecture that represents a major step forward in aluminum-intensive automotive body structures.
Jaguar’s engineers have developed a conventional monocoque body structure of aluminum rather than relying on a less efficient space-frame construction. As such, the new XJ moves the automobile industry forward in its drive to reduce weight and enjoy the wide range of benefits this offers in terms of performance, fuel economy, emissions, crash safety, vehicle dynamics, and recyclability.
The Jaguar XJ’s body structure uses pressings of sheet aluminum combined with aluminum alloy extrusions and aluminum castings. Jaguar’s engineers adopted proven construction techniques of the aerospace industry to assemble this structure, making extensive use of rivet-bonding. Rivet-bonding uses self-piercing rivets and aerospace-style epoxy adhesives to create a structure of remarkable strength and light weight.
The creation of this lightweight vehicle architecture required high levels of precision and engineering craftsmanship that Jaguar is uniquely positioned to deliver.
Born of state-of-the-art engineering technology and processesThe Jaguar XJ was created digitally, a feat made possible by Jaguar’s investment in state-of-the-art engineering technology and processes. Building on proven systems and methodologies, including knowledge-based engineering and rapid prototyping, the new systems gave Jaguar XJ engineers greater analytical power and flexibility than ever before but also allowed them to retain total control.
"Computers don’t engineer cars, people do," says David Scholes, XJ Chief Program Engineer. "Our tools are designed to enable every member of our engineering team to achieve the excellence that is the hallmark of Jaguar."
Product information managementComputer-Aided Design, Engineering and Manufacturing (CAD, CAE and CAM) were integrated by a process called Product Information Management (PIM). Essentially a method of sharing information quickly and efficiently, PIM integrated the many disparate aspects of the vehicle development process into a unified, collaborative whole.
CAD, CAE, and CAM tools are used in a wide variety of ways within Jaguar, as well as by supplier companies. PIM was the unifying factor for the individual elements of the development process, giving every member of the XJ program team access to the information they needed, no matter where they happened to be located.
Equally as important, PIM enabled engineers to see exactly how any component modifications would impact on the work of their colleagues, this ensuring the best possible quality of fit between components and optimum functionality.
Single data modelIntegral to the successful implementation of PIM was the creation of a ‘single data model’. This was the master model for the entire vehicle and all components, and displayed the latest status of any aspect of the development program.
Engineers were able to access this single data model at any time, regardless of their location, through the Jaguar intranet. With so many parties having ready access to such huge amounts of data, only one person was authorized to modify the design of a single component. All relevant personnel, including key suppliers, were automatically notified of changes as soon as the information was stored, and the system informed them of the necessity to update their own designs in order to maintain compatibility with interacting components. In this way, engineering teams worked collaboratively and concurrently, toward common goals.
Knowledge Based EngineeringThe techniques used in the creation of the new XJ were pioneered with Jaguar’s Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) design automation principles. KBE uses knowledge of the company’s design processes and those of suppliers to create a tool which concurrently applies geometric relationships, material properties, structural properties, legislative requirements and manufacturing requirements to any given design.
KBE capitalizes on Jaguar’s institutional knowledge, passing on ‘lessons learned’ to help engineers continuously hone their designs with predictable success. It also soaks up newly acquired knowledge, which proved an especially valuable tool as Jaguar engineers worked to create the XJ’s rivet-boded, aluminum-intensive body structure.
KBE was used extensively in the development of the XJ, including its body-in-white and component packaging. The technology was also used to create an "interactive software mannequin" that was used to prove out the XJ’s interior roominess and occupant ergonomics.
Digital buck: the first new Jaguar XJ visualized on the computer screenEvery component of the new XJ was first stored in digital form in the ‘digital buck’ (a buck is traditionally a life-size vehicle mock-up). The digital buck could be accessed at any time and, using a technique called ‘solid modeling’, components could be viewed, either in isolation or together with neighboring components, in three-dimensional, virtual reality.
Solid modeling provided a more complete representation than could be achieved either with wire-frame or surface models, and enabled engineers to make design changes, perform analysis and evaluate the results of a change, more quickly than ever before. In addition, detailed motion studies could be carries out to simulate and analyze, for example, wheel and suspension movements and the opening and closing of doors and windows. As a result, far fewer, real-life prototypes were needed, dramatically condensing development lead-time, while improving the accuracy and quality of physical prototypes.
Rapid prototypingOnce a design is honed in the digital environment, physical prototypes are built. Rather than the time-consuming method of creating hand-built prototypes of vehicle components, Jaguar makes extensive use of rapid prototyping processes to create these models.
Rapid prototyping uses the digital ‘blueprint’ of the component to create the physical model. Such processes include stereolithography, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Jaguar maintains in-house FDM equipment, which is ideal for prototyping interior trim, vents, door deals and engine components. It also allows the creation of packaging models, which help engineers visually model the amount of space needed for a switch or handle, for example.
Creating a rapid prototype part takes only a fraction of the time – sometimes only overnight – that is needed to model in the traditional way. This helps to cut weeks from the development process.
Virtual Manufacturing: The new XJ was first built in virtual-realityThe new assembly processes required to create an aluminum-intensive body structure were created in virtual-reality long before XJ’s body assembly plant at Castle Bromwich, England, was ready for its first rivet.
Highly sophisticated ‘virtual manufacturing’ tools were used to design each step of the Jaguar XJ’s assembly process. Linked integrally with Jaguar’s PIM toolset, the digital virtual manufacturing tools helped production engineers to configure both the Castle Bromwich (body assembly) and the Browns Lane (final assembly) plants that produce the new XJ.
Simultaneously with the engineering of the vehicle itself, production engineers used the EDS Factory CAD digital tool to create a detailed model of the assembly process. This tool helped to hone the design of the assembly systems and equipment – using virtual models of floor and overhead conveyors, cranes, operators, material handling containers and robots – more quickly and accurately than would have been possible using conventional methods.
Traditionally, an assembly plant would be configured after the design of the vehicle itself, using specially built prototypes to work out assembly processes and build sequences. The digital system is also quicker. Because it is linked directly with the digital design of the vehicle itself, the assembly process can keep pace with any subsequent detailed engineering changes.
With the new ability to replicate the real-life environment of an assembly plant digitally, Jaguar was able to prove out key assembly processes well in advance of production starting.
The human factor: operator ergonomically honed digitallyBecause human craftsmanship plays a major part in the creation of every Jaguar XJ, the role of people was another important planning aspect. Again, virtual tools helped create a safe and operator-friendly environment at Castle Bromwich and Browns Lane. Using proprietary software, including Fata Automation’s RobCadMan and ‘Jack’ from Unigraphics, Jaguar production engineers configured the assembly process to mesh seamlessly with human operators.
This detailed design study helped create individual work stations throughout the assembly operations. Each worker’s function was ‘modeled’ to ensure that the job could be done comfortably by various human statures. As a result, work station heights and individual build processes were shaped for optimal ergonomic performance, which makes the process ideal for the creation of high quality, luxury cars.
Quality processesOver the past ten years, Jaguar has transformed its approach to quality and introduced advanced quality tools and procedures.
Advanced Quality Planning (AQP) A key quality technique employed by Jaguar is Advanced Quality Planning, a structured methodology that optimized product quality by identifying potential problems and ‘designing out’ the issue so that it never arises. The technique covers all stages of development, from early Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE through to Statistical Process Control (SPC) of production processes. Anything that might eventually result in a potential problem from a squeak or rattle to a major system failure is identified and eradicated at a very early stage. Robustness Design robustness takes into account a wide range of variables that fall into two main categories: ‘control factors’ and ‘noise factors’. Control factors are those over which a design engineer has complete control; they include, for example, material specification, surface treatment and dimensions.
Noise factors however are influences beyond the direct control of the design engineer, but to which the system or component must be made insensitive. They are divided into the following types: piece-to-piece variation; change in component dimensions over time; external and internal environment; and customer usage – the way the customer uses and interacts with the car.
As a car selling across the world – like all Jaguars – the new XJ will encounter a wide range of noise factors, all of which could contribute to unacceptable levels of degradation over time if the vehicle did not have a high degree of robustness.
For example, the new XJ must be resilient to the widest extremes of climate; all of its systems must be equally robust in the cold of an Alaskan winter or the heat of high summer in the Arizona desert. It must also respond to all kinds of driving styles, from sporty to sedate.
A hard life: the accelerated lifetime testJaguar prototype automobiles are subject to rigorous testing in some of the world’s most demanding conditions to verify robustness.
One especially demanding internal test each Jaguar must pass simulates a vehicle lifetime through high-mileage accumulation over a wide variety of demanding and severe road conditions. Passing this ‘accelerated lifetime’ test is a prerequisite for every Jaguar product prior to its public introduction.
Jaguar engineers were highly confident that the newly designed Jaguar XJ would pass the lifespan test with flying colors, thanks to its robust but lightweight body structure – and they were not disappointed. In fact, the results were so impressive that the same prototypes were subjected to another full round of the test, passing once again without any significant engineering issues!
Even before its public introduction, prototypes of the new XJ have in effect already been driven over two normal lifespans.
Cross-functional program module teamsTo create the new XJ, Jaguar employed a cross-functional team of highly qualified engineers with international product design and manufacturing experience. The core team of engineers, based at the Jaguar Engineering Center at Whitley, Coventry, England, and headed by Chief Program Engineer, David Scholes, was organized into smaller cross-functional program module groups, each one responsible for a specific area of development.
These groups, comprising representatives of each of the relevant engineering disciplines, other company functions and suppliers, were responsible for achieving product targets and developing optimum designs for key vehicle systems. Their understanding of the character of the XJ range – and their appreciation of customer requirements for a world-class luxury sedan – made the new XJ the car it is.
Jaguar Women’s Committee and Human Factors Strategy TeamTo optimize the interior ergonomics of the XJ, Jaguar not only employed an array of sophisticated modeling tools, but also involved potential customers in the ergonomics development process. The Jaguar Women’s Committee, comprising representatives from all levels of the company, also provided valuable feedback in this area.
Also, early in the development process a ‘Human Factors Strategy Team’ was formed to ensure that the XJ would satisfy a wide range of physiological considerations such as reach zones, clearance areas and vision lines. The XJ’s outstanding ergonomic details include adjustable pedals, which help individuals of a wide range of statures – from 5th percentile females to 95th percentile males – to achieve an optimal driving position.
"The creation of a Jaguar with an aluminum-intensive body structure represents a significant manufacturing accomplishment. A new, dedicated aluminum pressing facility at the Castle Bromwich assembly plant and the unique involvement of key technical partners are major aspects of the XJ manufacturing story."
Mike Beasley, Managing Director, Jaguar Cars
Volume production of aluminum-intensive body structureA new, dedicated aluminum pressing facility and a comprehensively redeveloped body assembly facility were constructed at Jaguar’s Castle Bromwich assembly plant to produce the new XJ. As Jaguar’s first aluminum-intensive body structure in volume production, the XJ’s lightweight vehicle design represents a major step forward, not least for the intensive use of aluminum in a conventional vehicle architecture. Other aluminum-intensive vehicles have required more exotic techniques less suited to volume production.
Aerospace production techniquesTo achieve this advance in vehicle construction, Jaguar adopted new manufacturing techniques honed by the aerospace industry. Instead of the conventional spot welding used on a steel body structure, the new Jaguar XJ uses structural adhesives and rivets to assemble the unibody structure of aluminum pressings, extrusions and castings which form the foundation of the vehicle.
Each Jaguar XJ contains almost 3,200 rivets and more than 394 feet of adhesives. The combination of rivets and adhesives, which cure in the heat of the subsequent paint process, results in a body structure that is extremely strong but light in weight.
Jaguar’s workforce has made the switch from steel to aluminum body construction seamlessly. Extensive training has been undertaken to help operators adapt to new techniques, and simultaneous test builds in aluminum during the production of the predecessor XJ model helped to prove out assembly techniques, acclimatizing the workforce to new methods and fine-tune processes.
Highly automated body assemblyThe new Jaguar XJ bodyshop facility makes extensive use of automation. This is not unusual in modern vehicle construction, but the XJ is very much state-of-the-art. Eighty-eight robots, linked by a sophisticated Ethernet control system, apply structural adhesives and install the self-piercing rivets in the vehicle structure. Robotic application of self-piercing rivets represented a considerable challenge: compared to a spot-welding head at the end of a robot arm, a self-piercing rivet gun is bulkier, and its cycle times are slower. These limitations required Jaguar manufacturing engineers to change their strategy for the ‘choreography’ of robot movements in comparison to conventional steel body construction.
The robot choreography also takes into account the different material properties of aluminum. Extensive simulation work – using powerful computer modeling tools – and prototype prove-out efforts have ensured uncompromising Jaguar quality in each step of the assembly process. This effort has resulted in new strategies for parts clamping and fastener locating.
Clean, quiet assembly facilityThe body assembly operation is surprisingly clean and quiet. Gone are the sights, sounds, sparks and residue of a spot-welding process. Decibel levels have been reduced significantly throughout the assembly hall.
An obsession with cleanliness is evident throughout the body assembly process, reflecting Jaguar’s standards of craftsmanship and its commitment to the ISO14001 environmental standard.
An aluminum dust management strategy throughout the plant keeps dust at a minimum. Low-noise, in-line tool extraction methods are used to vacuum aluminum dust from the production process, especially in metal finishing areas.
Workstations especially prone to producing dust are contained in special booths containing integral dust removal systems. Dust removed via these methods is recycled for the use in new aluminum production.
Upon completion of the body structure’s assembly, the new Jaguar XJ undergoes its first car wash. The metal structure is systematically cleaned of any remaining dust and residue prior to painting. This 104 degrees Fahrenheit, automated metal washing process results in an extremely clean surface that aids a high-quality paint finish.
Zero-defects scoreboardTen digital information panels – similar to electronic scoreboards at sporting events – help the workforce and plant management assure unerringly high quality for every Jaguar XJ body. Called Process Control Boards, these displays monitor plant efficiency and quickly alert plant management to any potential quality issues.
Each workstation is equipped with an alert button. If an operator detects a quality issue, pressing the button sounds a tone that alerts the appropriate member of the plant management team. The Process Control Board indicates which workstation requires assistance. At the heart of this information system is Jaguar’s desire to detect and rectify quality problems extremely quickly. Each worker is encouraged and empowered not to ‘bypass’ potential quality issues.
Body constructionThe underbody of the new XJ is created in three stages: front-floor, mid-floor and rear-floor sections. These are joined together as the first major assembly of the body structure. Robust vehicle body side assemblies are then constructed and joined to the newly created underbody at the ‘framing line’. Adding a roof structure creates the basic body architecture.
Intensive quality checks are performed electronically during these automated assembly processes. On completion of the underbody and integral body structure, the 140 laser measurements are automatically performed to assure that each new Jaguar XJ ‘foundation’ is dimensionally correct. Real-time statistical analysis of these test results allows the quality control system to stop production should an error be detected.
Aluminum body assembly: partnerships with key suppliersA number of key technical partners have been directly involved with Jaguar during the design and engineering of the body assembly facility, including:
Lean manufacturing: Just-In-Time is the keyThe lean manufacturing ethic of the new Jaguar XJ assembly process is configured for highly efficient movement of parts and components.
Computer-controlled stock movement ensures that each workstation is supplied efficiently with parts stock. The need for parts stores adjacent to each workstation has been cut dramatically, reducing the need for costly in-plant inventory.
The new plant configuration features two in-house ‘marketplaces’. Located at each end of Castle Bromwich’s C Block, these parts stores house enough stock for approximately eight hours of assembly operation. Just-In-Time delivery from suppliers keeps these stores at their optimum stock fill rate.
Computers aid the process. A bar-coded card system is used by operators to signal the need for parts replenishment from the marketplace. Delivery operators fill these orders, and this signals a need to replenish the marketplace inventory.
The assembly plant operates by an automated scheduling system, with each vehicle produced in a computer-derived sequence to its exact customer specification. Under this system, each body structure starts life as a bar code, which tells operators the exact configuration and equipment level required. By scanning the bar coding, operators are instructed which vehicle configuration to build – such as a vehicle with or without a moonroof. This coded labeling system is monitored and updated throughout the vehicle’s assembly, ensuring vehicle, parts and quality tracking.
On completion of the body structure’s assembly, this bar-coded number is etched into a hidden part of the body structure.
Lean manufacturing: space efficiency improvementThe new XJ advances the concept of lean manufacturing within Jaguar Cars. The assembly process is significantly more efficient than its predecessor in terms of build time, space, raw material supply and material handling. The whole process is also quieter and even safer for the Jaguar workforce.
Significant strides in lean manufacturing have also been achieved in the configuration of the body assembly plant, which is now contained in a single building. C Block, a 27,000 sq ft. assembly hall within the 106 acre Castle Bromwich facility, contains the entire Jaguar XJ body shop. The process to assemble predecessor models covered a larger area within Castle Bromwich, requiring more space than this single building could provide: space required for the body shop manufacturing alone has been reduced by 35 percent.
Planning for an all-new XJ body structure allowed Jaguar’s manufacturing engineers to configure every aspect of the newly equipped body shop for optimal efficiency. Every step of the process was scrutinized, with small teams of workers directly responsible for optimizing their respective sub-processes.
Workforce safety and ergonomic ease have played a critical role in this highly efficient design. As far as possible, the Jaguar XJ body shop is configured for automated material movement. The use of forklift trucks within the plant is minimized, resulting in lower exposure to potential injury for workers. Where forklift transport of components is unavoidable, gangways within the plant are, wherever possible, a minimum of 16.4 feet wide, assuring space for the safe conduct of pedestrians.
Focal point: ergonomicsIntensive effort in the design of the new assembly facility has centered on achieving excellence in workforce ergonomics. Throughout the processes, the workforce itself has had the final say on optimizing interaction with assembly process machinery.
Divided into small workgroups for each sub-assembly operation, Jaguar production workers adapted to the new aluminum construction techniques and configured their operations for optimal ergonomic efficiency. Each workgroup leader is responsible for scoring the ergonomic efficiency of every operation. Their assessments, prepared with the aid of an in-house occupational therapist, honed the process for ergonomic efficiency.
This extensive effort helps to remove potential for worker injury, and contributes to the highest quality standard.
Critical in this process was the configuration of the 58 manual self-piercing rivet guns and clinch guns used by operators, their design and careful balancing important for ease of use and consistently high quality process execution.
Flexible plant equipment can easily be relocated should work teams decide to reconfigure their sub-processes for greater efficiency or ergonomic ease.
And operator walking distances have been reduced, allowing the ‘working envelope’ of space required for individual assembly operations to be optimized, providing both ergonomic and manufacturing efficiencies.
Virtual manufacturingThe new Jaguar XJ assembly facility was designed simultaneously with the engineering of the new vehicle itself using Jaguar’s powerful C3P system and virtual manufacturing capabilities. C3P combines Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided Manufacturing and Computer-Aided Engineering with a massive product information database. This virtual manufacturing gave manufacturing engineers the opportunity to configure an assembly plant in virtual-reality to prove out processes prior to the investment in costly robots and other manufacturing equipment.
The XJ’s entire body shop existed on computer prior to its installation. Every step of the production process, down to each movement of an individual robot, was modeled in this fashion.
This powerful computer tool also gave manufacturing engineers the ability to configure the outgoing Jaguar XJ body shop to test aluminum assembly processes well before the start of production for the new XJ model.
The use of these techniques has helped Jaguar to configure the new body shop to a shorter assembly line – another efficiency measure. Its design means significantly fewer work stations, while reduced movement of material from station to station reduces the potential for handling damage in the process.
Other indications of manufacturing efficiency:
Dedicated aluminum pressing facility: another partnershipThe production of the new Jaguar XJ required a new, dedicated aluminum pressing facility. Jaguar opted to co-locate a new 103,000 sq ft. pressing facility in Castle Bromwich, adjacent to the body assembly hall.
Designed, engineered and constructed by Jaguar Cars, the new pressing plant is operated and managed by a technical partner consortium, Polynorm Stadco, under a long-term operating contract.
The new pressing facility produces 125 different major aluminum parts for the new Jaguar XJ. It features 13 presses, ranging in capacity from 448 tons to 2240 tons, arranged in two flexible lines.
Achieving Jaguar quality standards drove the specification of the new pressing facility. Hydraulically driven presses were chosen over the mechanically driven presses typically used in automotive manufacturing. Hydraulic control systems provide a greater degree of control during the press cycle, which ensure the complex aluminum stampings for the Jaguar XJ would by highly detailed and dimensionally consistent.
The pressing facility is equipped with presses produced by Schuler AG of Germany.
The A Line consists of six presses – two of them 2240 tons in capacity – that produce the major body pressings, such as exterior panels and floor sections. Intricate pressings – such as the front and rear fenders of the Jaguar XJ – are formed by a series of six stamping tooling operations.
The B Line consists of seven presses, configurable in series or as two smaller lines, for high flexibility to create the smaller stampings required for the body architecture.
Each press is equipped with sliding bolsters to allow the rapid changing of die units. An automatic die change can be completed within 15 minutes.
In total, 86 die sets are used in the manufacture of the Jaguar XJ body structure. These have been designed, engineered and produced in conjunction with several technical partners, including:
Jaguar’s dedication to detail was evident throughout the die development process. Every pressing was simulated using finite element analysis. The shaping of binding surfaces of the dies, which are critical to achieving deep and detailed shapes, was honed to give manufacturing engineers the high degree of confidence they demanded to ensure pressing quality early in the development process.
Soft tools for each die were created in advance of each production die set.
For a balance of manufacturing and subsequent assembly efficiency, the press facility is designed to produce a 10-day supply of each aluminum panel. An adjacent warehouse within the pressing facility holds this stock and feeds the ‘marketplaces’ within the assembly building via 24-hour, Just-In-Time delivery.
The pressing facility currently operates three shifts per day, employing 160 Polynorm Stadco manufacturing specialists.
Complementing the robust quality process within the Jaguar XJ assembly plant itself, the new pressing facility makes use of a large LK Coordinate Measuring Machine. This device precisely measures stampings created in the new facility against their production specifications. Statistical Process Control methods are used to evaluate each tested component for the quick detection and rectification of defects.
Key Technical Partner: AlcanAlcan is the supplier of all the aluminum used in the new Jaguar XJ. It supplies the pressing facility via local warehouses capable of storing up to 20 days’ supply of raw material.
Alcan has played a key role in the development of the construction techniques used in the Jaguar XJ, and served as the primary technical resource in early feasibility studies. The aluminum materials, the lubricants used in pressing and the adhesive/rivet bonding processes technologies used in construction have all resulted from this development work. Three different Alcan aluminum stamping materials are used in Jaguar XJ’s manufacture:
X350 paint processThe new XJ is painted in the Castle Bromwich paintshop and receives Jaguar’s unique 4-coat paint process in common with the other models in the Jaguar range. The application of two primer coats, the second coat of which is matched to the same color as the final topcoat, provides the final paint finish with the smooth, glossy appearance demanded by the luxury car customer, as well as the highest levels of resistance to stone chipping damage. The primers are applied after the bodies have been dipped in a bath of electrically deposited corrosion protection primer, which coats the entire surface of the bodyshell, inside & out, for maximum corrosion protection and durability.
The final topcoat process comprises two coats of water-based color basecoat, followed by two coats of scratch resistant clearcoat, to ensure that the smooth, high gloss finish is retained longer in service. Each paint layer is baked in ovens for 30 minutes at temperatures of up to 365 degrees Fahrenheit to ensure the highest levels of durability.
For the aluminum bodyshell of the new XJ, Jaguar developed a new pre-treatment process for initial surface treatment of the aluminum, prior to the electro-dip primer. This involves a new chemical surface etching process, which takes place in eleven stages, including six full dipping baths. This process maximizes corrosion resistance and provides the perfect surface for the subsequent paint coats.
Final and trim assemblyAfter the XJ body structures are assembled and painted at Castle Bromwich, they are shipped by road the 16 miles to Jaguar’s Browns Lane Plant for final assembly and trim installation.
XJ: more than half of all Jaguars ever builtSince the launch of the original XJ6 in September 1968, Jaguar has made six generations of XJ series sedans, which between them have reached a total production figure of over 800,000 cars – in other words, more than half of all Jaguars ever built. The new XJ (codenamed X350 during its development) is the seventh generation in this illustrious line of Jaguar sedans.
Originally introduced as a single model range to replace no less than four different predecessors, today the XJ sedan stands at the top of the expanding Jaguar range, as the largest and most prestigious of three sedans. And for many loyal customers and enthusiasts, the XJ is still the definitive Jaguar sedan.
The story of how the original XJ came about, and how the range has developed over the years, is part of the Jaguar legend, and provides a fascinating insight into how the company has remained true to the same ideals over the past 35 years, while adapting to changing requirements and staying at the forefront of contemporary engineering and design. The XJ range also represents a direct link with Jaguar’s founder, Sir William Lyons (1901-1985). The original car was his inspiration, his vision of Jaguar’s future as he saw it in the 1960s. The success of the XJ models over the years is his best memorial.
The first XJ: simplifying Jaguar’s model rangeDuring the 1960s, the Jaguar sedan range consisted of the Mark 2 – compact sports sedan, together with two intermediate models derived from this, the original S-type and the 420. At the top of the range was the Mark X or 420 G model – a limousine-like prestige car. With this extensive range, Jaguar catered for every niche of the prestige market, but production of so many different models in relatively small numbers was difficult. Within the four ranges, there were seven Jaguar and two Daimler models, using four different sizes of the famous six-cylinder XK engine, as well as the Daimler V8. The idea emerged of replacing all of these cars with a single model range, offered with a choice of just two engines, and available in both Jaguar and Daimler forms. The size and package of the new car was chosen so that it would be a replacement for the medium-sized S-type and 420 models, which were considered to be the ideal size for a future Jaguar model with international appeal.
XJ: eXperimental JaguarThe car that became the XJ was originally known by its internal project number, XJ4. Here XJ stood for ‘eXperimental Jaguar’: there was no particular significance to the number 4. The germ of the project was a proposal to replace the E-type with a four-seater GT model, in response to such cars appearing in Jaguar’s important American market.
Later as the project progressed, the emphasis was once again on a new sedan model, so rear doors were added, and the front and rear ends were ‘cut off’, producing the typical XJ look, with the customary style and elegance expected of a Jaguar. The front end was modeled on the Mark X and 420 models, with a wider and lower version of the Jaguar grille and four headlamps. The grille was perhaps controversial, with its cross-hatch of vertical and horizontal bars. The car was considered so unique and distinctive that early examples did not have a Jaguar nameplate, only the ‘growler’ and ‘leaper’ badges. The interior was typically Jaguar, with leather upholstery, wood trim, and a full range of instruments.
XJ sets new standards in NVH suppressionThe car was engineered under the direction of the late Bob Knight. He was already responsible for the Jaguar independent rear suspension, which in modified form was used on the new car. Bob’s expertise was in developing suspension that combined impeccable road manners with a high degree of ride comfort. With subframes for both front and rear suspension and clever use of rubber mountings, the XJ set new standards in suppressing noise, vibration, and harshness. A new feature was the anti-dive geometry of the front suspension, and for the first time Jaguar used rack-and-pinion steering on a sedan car, with power assistance standard on the 4.2-liter model. Brakes were discs all round, with dual hydraulic circuits.
To suit the characteristics of the suspension, Dunlop developed a new type of wide, low-profile radial tire with a high speed rating. The result was a car that was superb to drive, and to be driven in.
Powered by the legendary XK engineIt has originally been Sir William’s hope that the new sedan car would from the start be fitted with the new V12 engine that was being developed by the team of Wally Hassan, Claude Baily and Harry Mundy. However the V12 was delayed (and would make its debut in the E-type in early 1971), and a V8 derived from the design was cancelled. In consequence, when the XJ appeared in 1968, the engine was the well-tried XK straight-six of 4.2 liters, with twin carburetors and 245 bhp. The model name XJ6 was finally chosen simply because the car had six-cylinders.
"The finest sedan Jaguar has ever made" – Sir William LyonsThe launch of the car took place on September 26, 1968, just before the London Motor Show. Sir William Lyons himself appeared in the advertisements for the new car, and declared that this was the finest sedan Jaguar had ever made. The press agreed with him, and the car was given an enthusiastic reception. The combination of traditional Jaguar virtues, such as style and sportiness, performance and comfort, were now enhanced by the advanced engineering of the XJ, and its remarkable refinement. Comparisons began to be drawn between the Jaguar XJ and the Rolls-Royce.
Car of the YearThe Jaguar quite simply set a new standard, especially at its price – a 4.2-liter XJ6 cost just $6,465.00. At the same time, the 4.2-liter car had a top speed of 124 mph and accelerated from 0 to 60 in a very respectable 9 seconds. In Britain, Car magazine chose the XJ6 as their "Car of the Year."
Demand was such that for quite some time, Jaguar found it difficult to make enough XJs. There were considerable waiting lists, both in home and export markets. The supply position eased up after the first two years, as Jaguar now dropped all its earlier models and concentrated on the new car.
XJ12: the fastest sedan in the worldIn April 1971, the magnificent 5.3-liter V12 engine made its debut in the E-type Series 3, and in July 1972, this engine also became available in the XJ sedan – in this form called the XJ12. In the 1970s, the XJ12 and Daimler Double-Six cars were the only V12-engined cars available anywhere in the world, and Jaguar made the only V12-engined cars in large-scale production. With a top speed of 147 mph, the XJ12 soon captured the title of the fastest sedan in the world.
Launch of the long wheelbase, 1972If there had been any criticism of the original XJ, it was that the rear legroom was rather limited for a luxury car. The problem was addressed in September 1972, when a long wheelbase model, adding an extra 4 inches between the axles, was introduced.
Second generation arrives in 1973, including coupeMeanwhile, a face-lifted version of the XJ range was under development. A major reason for changing the style of the original was that the bumper height needed to be raised to comply with new legislation in the U.S. market. This meant that the radiator grille became ever shallower, and the cross-hatch type grille was found on both six and 12-cylinder Jaguars. At the same time, Jaguar took the opportunity to revise the interior and improve the ergonomics, with a new dashboard which put all the instruments and major controls in front of the driver. Also as part of the revised range, a two-door pillarless coupé version was under development. Such a model had been planned in the mid-1960s, when the trend in the USA was towards the ‘hard top’ body style.
The revised Series 2 range was introduced at the 1973 British Motor Show. The short-wheelbase four-door sedans were soon discontinued, and all sedans were from then on built on the longer wheelbase, while the original wheelbase was retained for the new coupé also known as the XJ-C model. In the case of the coupé, the October 1973 announcement was a little premature – because of problems with sealing the opening rear quarterlight to satisfactory Jaguar standards, series production did not commence until early 1975.
The coupé turned out to be quite short-lived and these elegant cars, with their distinctive standard-fit vinyl roofs and optional alloy wheels, were discontinued at the end of 1977. With a total production figure of just over 10,000, the coupés remain among the most rare – and most desirable – of the classic XJ models. The coupé was used for an unsuccessful attempt by the Leyland Broadspeed team to enter the European Touring Car Championship in 1976-77. Although spectacular and very fast, the cars were too heavy, and were never developed sufficiently to overcome reliability problems.
On the mechanical side, fuel injection replaced carburetors on the V12 cars in 1975, and a GM400 automatic gearbox was introduced on all models in 1977. In 1978, six-cylinder cars for the North American market followed the V12 by adopting fuel injection.
Series 3, redesigned by PininfarinaIt was almost time for a third XJ generation. For the first time in Jaguar history, the re-styling of the next model was entrusted to an external designer, the famous Italian house of Pininfarina. The ‘greenhouse’ of the car above the waistline was completely re-designed, with a new roof, side windows, and screens, increasing window area and making the car look even lower, although in fact headroom was improved. There were also new door handles, bumpers and rear lights, and improvements to the interior, as well as a handsome new vertical-bar radiator grille. The new models, called the Series III, were launched at the end of March 1979, and with the even more elegant styling were warmly welcomed, and carried on the Jaguar traditions at a difficult and crucial time in the company’s history.
Improvements for the V12During 1981, important improvements were made to the V12 engine. A new cylinder head designed by the Swiss engineer Michael May was introduced, with a very high compression rate of 12.5:1 and other features which reduced fuel consumption by about 25 percent – an extremely worthwhile improvement on these rather thirsty cars. In the same year, a Vanden Plas version of the Jaguar XJ6 was offered in the North American market, equipped to the same standard as the home market Daimlers, while in 1983 the Sovereign model name was transferred from Daimler to Jaguar, and from then on denoted the most luxurious versions of the Jaguars.
All-new XJ40 with AJ-6 engine unveiled in 1986As the basic XJ design was now well over ten years old, behind the scenes Jaguar was developing a replacement, now under the project code XJ40. There were several false starts before the new car eventually emerged on October 8, 1986, just before the International Motor Show at the NEW. Crucial to the development of this car was a new Jaguar engine, intended to replace the classic XK unit. This was originally derived from a single bank of the V12 but had twin rather than a single overhead camshaft, and benefited from having four valves per cylinder. As had happened many years before with the XK engine, and also with the V12, the new engine – called the AJ6 (for Advanced Jaguar) – was at first launched in a limited production sports car, the XJ-S 3.6 cabriolet of 1983.
There was at first no 12-cylinder version – the XJ40 had not originally been designed to accept a V engine – and a partial re-design was necessary before the V12 engined model finally arrived in 1993.
In consequence, while production of the six-cylinder Series III was stopped soon after the introduction of XJ40, the 12-cylinder Series III continued in production, proving the timeless elegance of the classic XJ design, even after more than 20 years.
XJ40: Sir William Lyons’ last Jaguar sedanAs far as styling was concerned, XJ40 was the last Jaguar production car that Sir William Lyons (who died in 1985) had any influence on, as an informal consultant and regular visitor to the styling studio, even in retirement. Perhaps inspired by contemporary 1980s design, the XJ40 was rather more angular than most previous Jaguars, and many versions featured large rectangular headlamps, as well as square rear lights. An innovation for Jaguar was the quarterlight in the rear pillar, creating a six light style. The overall proportions and the kicked-up rear fender line were however unmistakably Jaguar.
Under the skin, the XJ40 featured a new rear suspension with double wishbones and the brake discs mounted outboard. All U.S. versions were fitted with an automatic four-speed ZF with a new shift pattern called the J-gate. The interior of the car was brought up to date with better ergonomics and sophisticated electronics that extended to the smaller instruments with car type displays, and a multi-function trip computer.
The new car was an instant success, and Jaguar was hard-put to keep up with orders until a second assembly line was opened in 1987. As had been the case with the original XJ6 in 1968, for a time demand easily outstripped supply, but by 1989 production had been increased to a record 39,000 cars per year. For the 1990 model year, the 3.6-liter engine was replaced by a 4.0-liter version. The V12 version with the engine of now six liters followed in 1993. The ultimate in luxury was offered by the long wheelbase models that became available from 1993 onward.
X300: ‘retrolutionary’ design and supercharged performanceBy the early 1990s, the next generation of the XJ was under development. An investment of around $300 million made by Ford after its takeover of Jaguar in 1989 financed a re-design of the XJ40 to make the car simpler to manufacture and improve build quality. The result was the X300, the first of a new generation of Jaguars with a new style of project numbers. For the X300, the opportunity was also taken to re-style the car, the result being called ‘retrolutionary’ design: Softer shapes and a classic four-headlight front end were more in tune with the rounded shapes coming back in the 1990s, and recalled the styling heritage of classic Jaguars of the past.
Launched in 1994, the X300 range featured a 4.0-liter version of the six-cylinder engine, now in a modified form known as the AJ-16, while the 6.0-liter V12 was also available. Most exciting however was the new supercharged version of the 4.0-liter, fitted to the XJR model. With a top speed of 155 mph, it was just as fast as the 12-cylinder car, but had even more spectacular acceleration. In 1995, long wheelbase models were added to the range.
However, the six- and 12-cylinder versions of the X300 were to be the most short-lived of the various XJs to date. Jaguar was working on an all-new engine family, which eventually would embrace both V6 and V8 configurations. Disregarding the Daimler engines of the 1960s, this was Jaguar’s first V8, although an eight-cylinder version of the V12 had been under consideration in the late 1960s. The new V8, known as the AJ8 engine, was launched in 4.0-liter form in the new XK8 sports car, which replaced in XJ-S in 1996, and in the following year the V8 engines also appeared in the X300 (which then became known internally as the X308 range).
In the sedan models, there were 4.0-liter and supercharged 4.0-liter versions of the V8 which signaled the end for the magnificent V12 that had served the company so well for 25 years. The famous names of XJ6 and XJ12 were retired, and Jaguar’s prestige car became the XJ8. The sixth generation had launched and until the arrival of the new XJ in 2003, was Jaguar’s flagship.
ENDS 21st December 2002 Jaguar Cars Inc
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